I discuss how technology companies are handling these issues and the importance of having principles and processes for addressing these concerns. I close by noting ways to strengthen ethics in AI-related corporate decisions. Briefly, I argue it is important for firms to undertake several steps in order to ensure that AI ethics are taken seriously:.
The growing sophistication and ubiquity of AI applications has raised a number of ethical concerns. These include issues of bias, fairness, safety, transparency, and accountability. Without systems compatible with these principles, the worry is that AI will be biased, unfair, or lack proper transparency or accountability.
Concerns over possible problems have led many nongovernment, academic, and even corporate organizations to put forward declarations on the need to protect basic human rights in artificial intelligence and machine learning. These groups have outlined principles for AI development and processes to safeguard humanity.
In , participants at a Future of Life conference held at Asilomar published a statement summarizing issues being raised by artificial intelligence and machine learning. The growing sophistication and ubiquity of AI applications has raised a number of ethical concerns, including issues of bias, fairness, safety, transparency, and accountability.
Ethical Dilemma Table 1
A number of university projects also have focused on AI concerns. Academic experts have pinpointed particular areas of concern and ways both government and business need to promote ethical considerations in AI development. Nonprofit organizations have been active in this space. Other nonprofits are focusing on how to develop artificial general intelligence and mold it toward beneficial uses.
Corporations have joined in the discussions as well. Several companies have joined together to form the Partnership for Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society.
Ethical Dilemma Essays: 10 Awesome Ideas and Paper Sample
In looking across AI activities, there are several applications that have raised ethical concerns. It is one thing to support general goals, such as fairness and accountability, but another to apply those concepts in particular domains and under specific political conditions. One cannot isolate ethics discussions from the broader political climate in which technology is being deployed. The current polarization around politics and policymaking complicates the tasks facing decisionmakers.
Republicans and Democrats have very different views of U. It is not the technology so much that dictates the moral dilemma as the human use case involved with the application. The very same algorithm can serve a variety of purposes, which makes the ethics of decisionmaking very difficult. In addition, running through many ethical dilemmas is the problem of dual-use technologies. There are many algorithms and software applications that can be used for good or ill.
Facial recognition can be deployed to find lost children or facilitate widespread civilian surveillance. For this reason, companies have to consider not just the ethical aspects of emerging technologies, but also their possible use cases. Indeed, the latter represents an interesting opportunity to explore AI ethics because it illustrates concrete aspects of ethical dilemmas. Having in-depth knowledge of those issues is important for AI development. One topic that has attracted considerable attention involves AI applications devoted to war or military activities.
As technology innovation has accelerated, there have been discussions regarding whether AI should be used in war-related activities. Of course, many other firms have not adopted this position. Indeed, military leaders long have recognized the need to upgrade capabilities and incorporate the latest advances in their arsenals.
Ethical Dilemma Examples
The U. During a period of considerable international turbulence and global threats, America has to be careful not to engage in unilateral disarmament when possible adversaries are moving full-speed ahead. Many commentators have noted that countries, such as Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea, have AI capabilities and are not refraining from deployment of high-tech tools. Disputes over AI deployment demonstrate not all agree on an AI prohibition for national security purposes. The American public understands this point. In an August survey undertaken by Brookings researchers, 30 percent of respondents believed the United States should develop AI technologies for warfare, 39 percent did not, and 31 percent were undecided.
However, when told that adversaries already are developing AI for war-related purposes, 45 percent thought America should develop these kinds of weapons, 25 percent did not, and 30 percent were undecided. There are substantial demographic differences in these attitudes. Men 51 percent were much more likely than women 39 percent to support AI for warfare if adversaries develop these kinds of weapons. The same was true for senior citizens 53 percent compared to those aged 18 to 34 38 percent.
In the domestic policy area, there are similar concerns regarding the militarization of policing practices and shootings of unarmed black men in communities across the U. Those tendencies have led some to decry AI applications in law enforcement. Critics worry that emerging technologies, such as facial recognition software, unfairly target minorities and lead to biased or discriminatory enforcement, sometimes with tragic consequences. Some business leaders have been quite outspoken on this topic.
The same logic applies to border enforcement under the current administration. Government surveillance is a challenge in many places. A number of countries have turned toward authoritarianism in recent years. They have shut down the internet, attacked dissidents, imprisoned reporters or NGO advocates, and attacked judges. All of these activities have fueled concerns regarding government use of technology to surveil or imprison innocent people.
As a result, some companies have disavowed any interest in selling to government agencies. This includes security agencies, airport authorities, or lie detection contracts. Other companies, however, have not taken this stance. Amazon sells its Rekognition facial recognition software to police agencies and other kinds of government units, even though some of its employees object to the practice.
In China, there is growing use of facial recognition combined with video cameras and AI to keep track of its own population. There, law enforcement scans people at train stations to find wanted people or identifies jaywalkers who cross the street illegally. It is estimated that the country has deployed million video cameras, which makes possible surveillance on an unprecedented scale. No matter who he tells, he is going to end up hurting one, if not both friends. Does he remain silent and hope his knowledge is never discovered? An article on ListVerse compiled a list of Top 10 moral dilemmas and asked readers to consider what they would do in those situations.
Here is an example of one of the Top 10 ethical dilemmas they proposed:. A pregnant woman leading a group of people out of a cave on a coast is stuck in the mouth of that cave. In a short time high tide will be upon them, and unless she is unstuck, they will all be drowned except the woman, whose head is out of the cave. Fortunately, or unfortunately, someone has with him a stick of dynamite. There seems no way to get the pregnant woman loose without using the dynamite which will inevitably kill her; but if they do not use it everyone will drown. What should they do?
The Institute for Global Ethics also proposed the following ethical dilemma to promote a global understanding of ethics and to promote ethical decision making:. The mood at Baileyville High School is tense with anticipation. For the first time in many, many years, the varsity basketball team has made it to the state semifinals. The community is excited too, and everyone is making plans to attend the big event next Saturday night.
- thesis theme navigation menu full width;
- The role of corporations in addressing AI’s ethical dilemmas;
- Branches of Ethics.
Jeff, the varsity coach, has been waiting for years to field such a team. Speed, teamwork, balance: they've got it all. Only one more week to practice, he tells his team, and not a rule can be broken. Everyone must be at practice each night at the regularly scheduled time: No Exceptions. Brad and Mike are two of the team's starters. From their perspective, they're indispensable to the team, the guys who will bring victory to Baileyville. They decide-why, no one will ever know-to show up an hour late to the next day's practice.
Jeff is furious. They have deliberately disobeyed his orders. The rule says they should be suspended for one full week. If he follows the rule, Brad and Mike will not play in the semifinals.
But the whole team is depending on them. What should he do?